Golestān Province

Golestān Province

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Golestān Province
استان گلستان Location Map of Iran with Golestān highlighted. Info Admin. Center:
 • Coordinates: Gorgan
 36°50′21″N 54°26′40″E / 36.8393°N 54.4444°E / 36.8393; 54.4444Coordinates: 36°50′21″N 54°26′40″E / 36.8393°N 54.4444°E / 36.8393; 54.4444 Area : 20,367[1] km² Population(2006):
 • Density : 1,617,087[2]
 79.4/km² No. of Counties: 11 Time zone: IRST (UTC+3:30)   -Summer (DST): IRST (UTC+4:30) Main language(s): Mazandarani

Golestān (Persian: گلستان) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, located in the north-east of the country, south of the Caspian Sea. Its capital is Gorgan.

Golessplit off from the province of Mazandaran in 1997. It has a tān was population of 1.7 million (2005) and an area of 20,380 km². The major townships of the province are: Gorgan, Gonbad Kavoos, Bandar Torkaman, Bandar Gaz, Aliabad-e katul, Kord Kooy, Fenderesk and Minoo Dasht. Present-day Gorgan was called Esteraba or Astarabad until 1937.
Golestan is the World leading producer of Caviar.[citation needed]
The World's second longest wall (after the China Wall) is in the region of Gorgan.[citation needed]



[ The Name

Gorgān, Hyrcania in Latin, the district of "the wolves" (still seen thereabouts), is mentioned already as Varkāna- in the Behistun inscription.[3]

[ History

Human settlements in this area date back to 10 000 BCE. Evidence of the ancient city of Jorjan can still be seen near the current city of Gonbad-e Kavus. This was an important city of Persia, located on the Silk Road.

Under the Achaemenid Iran, it seems to have been administered as a sub-province of Parthia and is not named separately in the provincial lists of Darius and Xerxes. The Hyrcanians, however, under the leadership of Megapanus, are mentioned by Herodotus[4] in his list of Xerxes' army during the invasion of Greece.[3]

[ Demography

The Turkmens reside in the north of the province, a plain called Torkman sahra, this former nomadic people live in this area from 15th century, main cities of whom is Gonbad-e Kavus and Bandar Turkaman. recent decades has seen a huge migration to this province, especially from Zabol northest city of Sistan and Baluchestan. They are a sizable minority at cities such as Gorgan, Ali Abad, Kalaleh and many of eastern townships.

Other ethnic groups such as Azerbaijanis, Baluchs, Kazakhs, Qezelbashs, Kurds, Georgians, and Armenians also reside in this area, and have preserved their traditions and rituals.

Turkmens are muslim and belong to Hanafi school of sunni sect. small minorities; Baluchs and Kazakhs are also Hanafi.

Persian and Mazandarani languages speakers are mainly shia, official religion of Iran with Azeris, Kurds and Qezelbashs.

A small minority of Bahá'í Faith also Live in Golestan (in Shahpassand).

[ Culture

The Buwayhid and Ziyarid dynasties of Persia were from this region. They were known for the revival of pre-Islamic Persian culture. For example, Buwayhid leaders entitled themselves as Shâhanshâh (شاهنشاه), literally king of kings, a term used by Sassanid rulers.

The world's tallest brick tower stands in this province. It is the famous Gonbad-e Qabus, built by a famous Amir of this region.

[Climate and geography

Landscape in Golestan

Golestān enjoys mild weather and a temperate climate most of the year. Geographically, it is divided into two sections: The plains, and the mountains of the Alborz range. In the eastern Alborz section, the direction of mountains faces northeast and gradually decreases in height. The highest point of the province is Shavar, with a height of 3,945 meters.

[ Administrative divisions

MapAbbreviation in mapCounty (Shahrestan)   A Aliabad-e Katul A Azadshahr BT Bandar Torkaman F Fenderesk G Gorgan GK Gonbad Kavoos K Kordkooy M Minoodasht

[ Colleges and universities

  1. Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (website)
  2. Golestan University of Medical Sciences
  3. Islamic Azad University of Azadshahr
  4. Islamic Azad University of Gorgan
  5. Islamic Azad University of Ali Abad katool

[ References

  1. ^ [1] Iranian Statistical Yearbook 1385
  2. ^ [2] National Census 2006
  3. ^ a b "GORGĀN". Encyclopedia Iranica. http://www.iranica.com/newsite/index.isc?Article=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/v11f2/v11f2034a5.html. Retrieved 23 December 2009. 
  4. ^ Herodotus, Histories, 7.62
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